Many modern scholars take the position that the Genesis narrative is symbolic. Personally, I can buy that, but let’s say for a moment that there truly was such a place.
Eden appears to be a pre-Sumerian word meaning “plains” or an Aramaic word meaning “fruitful, or well-watered.” Coincidentally, “Adam,” or “Adamu,” was an Assyrian word for Mankind and “Eve” appears to have been an Arabic or otherwise Semitic word for “life-bringer” or “mom”.
The Genesis narrative places Eden “in the East”… at the “headwaters” of the Pishon, Gihon, Tigris, and Euphrates Rivers. Now, because the Tigris and Euphrates have always originated in different mountain ranges and do not form one river until they reach the Persian Gulf (downstream… not upstream), intelligent readers really must assume that somewhere down the line of writers and copyists someone must have gotten something not-quite-right. Juris Zarins proposed that Eden may be in the Persian Gulf, claiming that the now dry Wadi Batin (in Arabia) and Karun (Iran) river systems may have been the Pishon and Gihon rivers respectively.
Assuming that the Torah was written either during or after the Egyptian Captivity, “in the East” and near the Euphrates and Tigris does agree with this assessment, as does the word itself, because during the last Ice Age, the Persian Gulf might have been a large, fertile plain.
Other people have other theories, but this one seems to be the most logical and fact-based.
 Cohen, Chaim (2011). “Eden”. In Berlin, Adele; Grossman, Maxine. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press.
 From the Assyrian King List.
 American Heritage Dictionary.
 Genesis 2:10-14; Note that locations are given for three of the rivers, but the lack of a location for the Euphrates leads many scholars to believe that the writer assumed the reader would know where that river is… i.e.: The second Genesis narrative was written for people who live on or near the Euphrates River.
 Hamblin, Dora Jane (May 1987). “Has the Garden of Eden been located at last?” (PDF). Smithsonian (magazine) 18 (2). http://www.theeffect.org/resources/articles/pdfsetc/Eden.pdf. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
 There are literally thousands, some placing Eden in China, others putting it in America or even on Antarctica.
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